Mortar construction is an integral part of building construction and involves a variety of mortar types, different construction methods and techniques, and various preventive measures before, during, and after construction. This article will start with the basic concept of mortar, and systematically introduce the relevant knowledge of mortar construction technology, aiming to provide readers with a comprehensive, systematic, and practical guide to mortar construction technology.
Table of Contents
The basic concept of mortar
Mortar is a material prepared by cement, sand, water, and possibly other additives in a certain proportion. Its main function is to connect and supplement the gaps in the building structure and provide a certain load-bearing capacity and surface decoration effect. Common mortar types include cement mortar, gypsum mortar, lime mortar, polymer mortar, etc.
The performance of mortar depends on its composition and mix ratio and is also affected by factors such as ambient temperature, humidity, and the state of the base. To ensure the quality and effect of mortar construction, it is necessary to master some basic mortar construction techniques.
Preparation work before mortar construction
Base surface treatment
Before mortar construction, the surface of the base layer needs to be treated to ensure its flatness and firmness. Common surface treatment methods include removing attachments, cleaning debris, filling cracks, etc.
Preparation of mortar components
According to the type of mortar and the requirements of use, appropriate cement, sand, water, and possibly other additives need to be prepared. Before use, these materials need to be inspected and screened to ensure that their quality and proportion meet the requirements.
Mixing of mortar
Before mortar construction, cement, sand, and other additives need to be mixed into the mortar in a certain proportion. When mixing, you need to pay attention to the following points:
(1) Add water in proportion to avoid the mortar being too thin or too dry.
(2) Gradually add sand and cement and stir well to avoid agglomeration and stratification.
(3) Control the mixing time to prevent the mortar from starting to solidify prematurely.
Critical technologies in mortar construction
The application of mortar is one of the key steps in mortar construction. Pay attention to the following points when applying:
(1) Use appropriate application tools and techniques, such as spraying, scraping, pressing, etc., to ensure that the mortar is evenly and firmly attached to the surface of the base.
(2) Control the thickness of the application to avoid uneven or excessive thickness.
(3) Before the mortar is fully cured, it is necessary to hang gauze or other reinforcing materials to improve its tensile strength and durability.
Compaction of mortar
After the mortar is applied, it must be properly compacted to improve its compactness and compressive strength. When compacting, you need to pay attention to the following points:
(1) Use appropriate compaction tools and techniques, such as platens, presses, etc., to ensure that the mortar is dense and uniform.
(2) Control the degree of compaction to avoid damage to the mortar or traces on the surface caused by excessive compaction.
(3) Wait for a certain period after compaction to ensure that the mortar is completely cured.
After mortar construction, proper maintenance treatment is required to ensure its stability and durability. The following points should be paid attention to during maintenance:
(1) After the initial setting of the mortar, it needs to be maintained in time to avoid cracking or falling off due to the influence of environmental factors.
(2) Adopt appropriate maintenance methods, such as spraying water, covering wet cloth, applying a waterproofing agent, etc., to improve the weathering resistance, water resistance, and durability of the mortar.
(3) The curing time depends on the type of mortar and environmental conditions, generally it takes 3-7 days.
Common problems and solutions in mortar construction
Mortar cracking is one of the common problems in mortar construction. The reason may be that the mortar is not evenly mixed, the application is too thick or too thin, and the surface of the base is uneven. Solutions include repainting, scraping the surface, making proper repairs, etc.
Mortar falling off
Mortar falling off may be caused by uneven application, weak base surface, improper maintenance, etc. Solutions include repainting, strengthening the surface of the base, increasing the adhesion between the mortar and the base, etc.
Insufficient mortar strength
Insufficient mortar strength may be caused by an unreasonable mortar mix ratio, insufficient mixing, improper maintenance, and other reasons. Solutions include adjusting the mortar mix ratio, strengthening mixing, and properly extending the curing time.
Inconsistent color of mortar
The inconsistent color of mortar may be caused by different raw materials, inconsistent mixing ratio, improper maintenance, and other reasons. Solutions include adjusting the ratio of raw materials, strengthening mixing, and proper maintenance.
Poor mortar permeability
The poor permeability of mortar may be caused by the insufficient density of mortar and unreasonable mix ratio. Solutions include adopting an appropriate mix ratio, increasing mortar density, etc.
Mortar is one of the most commonly used materials in construction, and its construction technology has an important impact on building quality and durability. This paper introduces and analyzes in detail the basic composition, mix ratio, types, construction techniques, and common problems of mortar. By understanding and mastering the relevant knowledge and technology of mortar, the efficiency and quality of building construction can be improved, and the stability and durability of the building can be guaranteed.
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